Bethany Vierra’s every day routine begins at dawn, when she will get as much as make pancakes or scrambled eggs for her younger daughter, Zaina, a curly haired 4-year-old. It’s the acquainted prelude to joyful hours of coloring, studying inside their condominium and swimming in Riyadh, the Saudi Arabian capital.

However for Vierra — a Washington state native ensnared in a months-long custody battle for Zaina following an acrimonious break up from her husband — every morning additionally begins a brand new day of dread.

At any second, the 32-year-old yoga teacher might be made to give up her daughter to the Saudi grandmother whom the little lady barely is aware of.

“Bethany and Zaina might never see each other again,” Kathi Vierra, Bethany’s mother, tells PEOPLE.

Kathi is frank when describing the case: “It’s gone on too long. It’s like that nightmare you keep having and you can’t get rid of.”

Divorced from Zaina’s father, a Saudi businessman, Bethany was lately judged too Western by a Saudi courtroom to maintain custody of her daughter. She was blamed for carrying her hair uncovered and for carrying a bikini whereas within the U.S., and the choose took challenge with English — not Arabic — being Zaina’s first language, as an indication of her failure to assimilate. Bethany’s mom says that through the custody struggle, Bethany’s ex additionally pointed to a Fb photograph of her doing a handstand and introduced up the truth that she had attended Burning Man, which is reputed for its inventive and libertine ambiance.

Nonetheless, Bethany’s ex-husband, 35-year-old Ghassan Alhaidari, didn’t obtain custody both. Discovering neither guardian preferable, the choose as an alternative ordered Zaina to be raised by her paternal grandmother — regardless of earlier issues from each Bethany and Alhaidari that the grandmother might be a harmful affect on the lady.

The choose cited the grandmother’s training and her excessive standing. “Additionally,” he wrote, “the criticisms against are not as strong as what was presented against the parents.”

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The choose famous in his ruling that Alhaidari and his mom had been dwelling collectively however wrote that he didn’t anticipate that to proceed, “knowing that it is in men’s nature not to stay at home and not honor/fulfill the parental role themselves.”

Bethany has accused Alhaidari of utilizing hashish substances, that are unlawful in Saudi Arabia. She additionally stated he was aggressive, generally volcanic, and she or he described his conduct as emotionally and verbally abusive. The Vierra household says Bethany has corroborating audio clips of Alhaidari screaming at her, enraged. (In a single clip he’s seemingly heard yelling at Bethany, “Leave me f—— alone!”)

However in Saudi Arabia, a girl’s testimony is value lower than a person’s, so Bethany’s personal account of her relationship was inherently weaker when offered in courtroom.

She is interesting, however one other ruling might take months. For a time earlier this 12 months, she was positioned below a journey ban as a result of she unwittingly missed a visitation session along with her ex, her household says. He complained to the courtroom, which then issued a warrant towards her, based on the Vierras. That cost and the ban have since been dropped.

Says Dale McElhattan, an out of doors observer and former director of the Workplace of Hostage Affairs on the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad: “It’s a crazy mess, and this American woman and her daughter are caught in the middle of it.”

Within the custody ruling, a translated copy which has been seen by PEOPLE, the choose famous that Bethany was new to Islam and is a foreigner who “continues to definitively embrace the customs and traditions of her upbringing.”

Saudi Arabia’s monarchy workout routines sweeping management over the nation and is intimately certain up with a really conservative department of Islam whose guidelines and customs form many aspects of Saudi society — and intensely prohibit ladies’s autonomy.

Solely lately had been ladies allowed to drive there they usually reside below a “guardianship” system during which their fathers, husbands and even sons primarily sign-off on a lot of their every day choices, together with banking, employment and journey. Bethany’s personal Saudi residency at one level was in limbo following her divorce, although that has since been resolved.

Zaina has twin American and Saudi citizenship. However the Saudi courts see her solely as a Saudi citizen, and their curiosity is in making certain she is raised as such. She must be spared publicity to Western customs and traditions, the choose in her custody case wrote in July — even when that meant being separated from her mom.

Zaina stays with Bethany in Riyadh, 1000’s of miles from Bethany’s household, pending her enchantment.

Till then, they wait.

“She’s really struggling,” Bethany’s cousin Nicole Carroll tells PEOPLE. “We are not talking about negotiating who gets a house in a divorce. We are talking about taking a child from her mother.”

In an emotional interview in July, after the choose first awarded her former mother-in-law custody of Zaina, Bethany advised The New York Instances, “I genuinely thought that there would still be justice served here, and I kind of put everything on that.”

“It’s like 10,000 times worse here because so much is at risk for women when they go to court,” she stated then.

Within the months since, her case has been coated by CNN, the In the present day present and worldwide shops, however Bethany has been reticent and centered on her household. She is keenly conscious — and never all the time snug with — how different persons are deciphering her state of affairs.

She agreed to be quoted for this text, albeit with reservations. “I’m still afraid of speaking to media on the topic,” she says, “but I will say that there is nothing in this world that makes me more proud than being Zaina’s mother.”

For Bethany, who has an Arabic tattoo on her again that reads “love is giving,” the method has produced the alternative of the private peace she teaches college students at her yoga studio — Saudi Arabia’s first, she says — which she opened in 2018. However she’s adamant that “the problem here is not Islamic law.”

“I do not want this case to be used to enforce Islamophobic rhetoric,” she says.

In current weeks, PEOPLE spoke extensively to the Vierra household and reviewed courtroom paperwork and different supplies for this portrait of Bethany’s headline-making struggle: what drew her to Saudi Arabia eight years in the past; how she met the person who turned her husband and what drove them aside; and her life with Zaina.

Alhaidari, her ex, didn’t reply to repeated makes an attempt to contact him by cellphone and by e mail. He has not spoken publicly. A man matching his identify and background did, nevertheless, view a PEOPLE reporter’s LinkedIn web page earlier than this story revealed.

Final week, Bethany shared a brief video on Fb of Zaina singing to her at bedtime. “Please don’t take my sunshine away,” Bethany wrote within the caption.

“What mother could endure that?” says Carroll, her cousin. “It’s just horrifying.”

‘I Was Really Excited for Her’

It was to be an journey. Nothing like this was imagined to occur.

Rising up in rising up in Wenatchee, Washington, “Bethany wasn’t shy,” says mother Kathi. “She was always pretty much an outgoing child, very social. … People liked her, and she enjoyed people.”

She was musical, enjoying piano and guitar and gifted with a singing voice, and she or he was theatrical, discovering roles at school performs, her mother says.

“Bethany loves exploring new places,” Carroll says, “and we would go to San Francisco together and have great conversations about life and our dreams for the future.” The 2 went boating and swimming collectively. As soon as, Carroll coaxed Bethany, six years her junior, into overcoming her worry of using horses.

As Bethany grew older, she set her sights more and more removed from residence.

Described by her household as “deeply intelligent and curious,” Bethany earned a number of school levels, finding out as an undergrad at Central Washington College in Ellensburg after which pursuing her grasp’s diploma in Paris and a PhD in Ireland. She has lived in Senegal, Tunisia and elsewhere.

“She traveled the world,” says Carroll. Obsessed with human rights, Bethany acquired her grasp’s in Center Jap research from the American College in Paris after which enrolled in a human rights doctoral program on the Nationwide College of Ireland. There she researched, amongst different matters, “perceptions of freedom among Saudi Citizens.”

Bethany first arrived in Saudi Arabia in 2011. She deliberate to show at a ladies’s college in Riyadh whereas pursuing her graduate diploma.

Buddies quickly launched her to Ghassan Alhaidari, a Saudi businessman who had attended the College of Colorado in Denver. In response to the Vierra household, he appeared charming and type and their bond deepened shortly.

Two years later, some two dozen family and friends watched them wed on the Portuguese island of Madeira. Mother Kathi remembers it as a “lovely” gathering.

“He’s pleasant, outgoing and charismatic when you first meet him,” she says of her former son-in-law, whom she met as soon as earlier than the marriage.

“I was really excited for her when she got married,” cousin Carroll says. Afterward, Bethany went to reside with Alhaidari in Riyadh. She had a brand new love, a brand new life and — in 2015 — a daughter they named Zaina, which means magnificence and style.

“She is a beautiful, intelligent and amazing little girl,” Bethany tells PEOPLE.

Bethany’s mother has visited her in Saudi Arabia a number of occasions, by no means with any challenge. Bethany and her husband and daughter additionally recurrently traveled to the U.S., and her mother says their plan was to ultimately transfer there.

“Beth came out every summer to see us for a few months. He’d come out for part of it, and they would go on vacation. We would keep Zaina,” Kathi says.

Inside just a few years although, Bethany’s marriage had grown turbulent, darkening, love curdling into one thing else. Bethany felt emotionally and verbally abused by the once-adoring man who now shouted and swore at her.

PEOPLE understands that the couple went into remedy for a number of months in 2016 and 2017 — although the battle between them was too deeply rooted. Tradition, communication, clashes in parenting kinds and emotional wants and expectations: Collectively these issues shredded their bond, at the same time as they labored for a time to restore it. Ultimately, they stopped going to the classes.

“I was diagnosed with postpartum depression after I gave birth to my daughter. I struggled being away from my friends and family in Saudi as a new parent for the first time,” Bethany stated in February, in an area profile on her work as a yoga teacher. “Yoga helped me by that battle, all the pieces I practiced on the mat was a metaphor for issues happening in my life. It allowed me to reconnect with myself after a few years of being misplaced, it turned one thing I wished to share with the group.

Final November, Bethany filed for divorce. Alhaidari at first resisted the break up, the Vierra household says, however then claimed that he had already divorced Bethany months earlier by way of a Saudi legislation that permits a person to dissolve his marriage just by asserting that to his spouse.

Whereas Alhaidari ultimately agreed to the break up, he contested custody of Zaina, setting in movement their authorized struggle this 12 months.

Says Kathi: “Something changed very quickly during the divorce process.”

‘Bethany Isn’t Going to Give Up’

Practically 12 months since wading into the Saudi authorized system, Bethany has not managed to search out her means out along with her daughter.

A key issue was Bethany’s perceived American-ness, as described by her ex-husband, whom the Vierras say painted her in an unflattering gentle to the Saudi courtroom despite the fact that she did issues that will not flip heads within the U.S.

Complicating issues additional through the custody proceedings, which got here to a head this summer season, was Bethany’s ex-husband’s sister Leena, who stated in an affidavit to the courtroom that their mother had her personal issues.

“My mother’s harsh temper made us choose our father’s custody for us when we were children whereas we were being harassed by my mother,” Leena wrote in her affidavit, which was obtained by PEOPLE.

Bethany, based on Leena, had “good morals” and was “capable of raising” Zaina, whom Bethany had spent nights awake with comforting through the lady’s bronchial asthma assaults.

The Alhaidari household, together with Zaina’s grandmother, couldn’t be reached for remark.

Extra complicating nonetheless is that below the “guardianship” system, Bethany’s ex-husband is his mom’s personal guardian, a State Division supply says.

Bethany formally misplaced custody in July, however the courtroom agreed that Zaina ought to stay along with her through the enchantment, the Vierra household says.

If the enchantment goes towards her, Bethany should relinquish Zaina to her former mother-in-law and search permission in courtroom to go to the kid she has raised from infancy.

Though the choose cited Sharia (or Islamic) legislation in his multi-faceted ruling, Bethany doesn’t forged fault on the nation that’s structured round conservative spiritual ideas.

“Islamic law would protect my right as a mother and my daughter’s right to be in my care until she reaches the age of maturity,” Bethany says.

However, in apply, Western ladies sometimes don’t retain custody of their youngsters in Saudi Arabia, based on worldwide household legislation skilled Jeremy Morley. “I don’t know of any Western woman winning custody of dual-national children in a Sharia court,” Morley says.

Even when she retains custody in Saudi Arabia, a Western mom doesn’t have full rights concerning the place her little one lives. The State Division cautions that “in Saudi Arabia divorce, Saudi courts rarely grant permission for the foreign parent to leave the country with the children born during the marriage, even if he or she has been granted physical custody.”

A spokesperson for the Saudi embassy didn’t reply to questions on Bethany. As a substitute the spokesperson referred PEOPLE to an August coverage assertion on the embassy web page about “Vision 2030,” a reform initiative described as aiming to empower ladies within the kingdom.

The dominion’s management has made a lot of the way it has lately eased some strictures on ladies, although skeptics query the extent and sturdiness of the reforms.

“Vision 2030 recognizes that a successful, modern nation must encourage and empower all members of society, including women,” the assertion reads. In March 2018, Saudi ladies acquired the precise to imagine custody of their minor youngsters following divorce except the divorce was being contested.

There are such a lot of modifications coming into play that generally Saudi judges are confused about how you can apply them, the State Division supply tells PEOPLE. Outdated views persist — generally to the mom’s detriment.

Whereas Bethany waits for the choice on her enchantment, she and Zaina proceed their tenuous existence collectively.

A typical day begins with Zaina waking her mother round 6 a.m. Bethany prepares a breakfast of do-it-yourself banana pancakes or scrambled eggs with chopped spinach. Like different ladies her age, Zaina loves unicorns, enjoys books, doing puzzles, enjoying with dolls and enjoying faux. Their gray and white Himalayan cat, Bebe, retains them firm.

Kathi says her granddaughter is “doing well, considering,” however Zaina is just not unaware of what’s going on.

“She overhears things. She sees her mother upset. She knows that her dad won’t talk to her mom, and that he won’t let her mom in the house,” Kathi says. “When she heard that the judge said she didn’t speak Arabic, she ran crying to Beth, counting in Arabic, saying, ‘See? I know Arabic!’ ”

Twice every week Bethany teaches at her yoga studio whereas Zaina stays with a sitter. As soon as every week, for just a few hours, Zaina sees her father.

At evening, with Zaina at residence, Bethany reads to her daughter and places her to mattress, to await no matter information the morning would possibly convey.

“To see her as a woman who is having her rights taken away breaks my heart, especially when I think of all the good she has done for others,” her cousin says.

The place Bethany was beforehand extra candid about her state of affairs — brazenly sharing her misery at her ongoing authorized issues over her daughter — she is now guarded, tactful.

“She has been very careful about keeping Zaina with her all the time,” Kathi says.

“I am so grateful to everyone here in Saudi and back home in the United States who have been supporting us and keeping us going,” Bethany tells PEOPLE.

She has her daughter, for now.

Dad Myron Vierra says that, if wanted, her lawyer will enchantment once more: “Bethany isn’t going to give up.”

“She doesn’t want to give up custody,” Kathi says, “or be in a position where she can’t come back.”

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