The quilt of the Aug. 9, 1937 subject of Life Journal is all about watermelons. On it, a number of watermelons are wedged into varied spots behind a pickup truck, packed in alongside for the trip.
A bald, middle-aged Black man with broad shoulders sits on the again of that truck, shirtless and outfitted in worn pants held up with suspenders. His identify is Roy E. Parrish, hailing from Adel, Georgia, and as he sits on the again of the truck, he friends out into sprawling acres of farmland on both facet of a winding grime highway.
It seems on the floor to be an excellent tribute to his onerous work and harvesting, nevertheless it shrouds a a lot darker and damaging racist stereotype that has persevered even in the present day—one linking African Individuals to a cherished pastime of munching on watermelons throughout the hotter summer time months.
However how did it begin? How did this green-and-white striped rind and its juicy, crimson flesh grow to be a racist moniker?
The photographs disseminated within the Life story, and others prefer it, performed a pivotal function in turning a bigoted assumption into a long-lasting racist stereotype within the minds of white Southerners ― and Northerners too.
Dr. Psyche Williams-Forson, affiliate professor and chair of African American research on the College of Maryland, researches meals shaming and policing; she discovered that stereotypical imagery involving meals and Black individuals started within the early 1900s.
“When I was researching [fried] chicken, I found as many images about watermelon,” she mentioned. “In fact, one of my earliest images I have is of an African American man with a watermelon in each arm and a chicken on the ground, or a pullet as they called it. He was allegedly making the decision about [whether to] put the watermelons down and pick up the pullet. Or does he leave the pullet and take the watermelons?”
One of many first documented of those pictures appeared in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper in 1869. The cartoon, in black and white, exhibits 5 little Black boys sitting and standing in a doorway, hungrily devouring watermelon. One among these boys is so consumed with the watermelon, his face is obscured from view. One other has his head leaning outward as he suggestions what seems to be like an empty watermelon rind towards his head to catch the lingering little bit of juiciness.
Within the years and many years following it, newspapers and magazines perpetuated these pictures, printing them in photograph spreads, as stand-alone cartoons and in advert areas. Past media, it began to seem on cookware as salt and pepper shakers, dish rags and paperweights. And every of those depictions was the identical: Black individuals consuming this seeded fruit with glee.
“You get this happy darkie concept of a person who just loves watermelon,” Williams-Forson mentioned. “They’re grown in the South, but people in the South and beyond eat them. The difference becomes when Black people are denigrated vis-a-vis these foods. [Then there becomes] another association.”
Debra Freeman, author and managing editor of Southern Grit Journal, encountered a few of these advertisements and photographs by way of her mom and was struck with the imaging and the bigger implications for them.
“My mom collects Black memorabilia and she was very much into watermelons for a period of time,” she mentioned. “Just looking at the ads with little Black children and the exaggerated mouths with the watermelons was absolutely stunning to see. It was used all over and a calculated decision to stop Black people from empowering themselves.”
At its core, watermelon represented a pathway to financial freedom for previously enslaved Africans. Whereas enslaved, they had been compelled to farm watermelons. However as soon as they had been free residents, watermelons supplied a solution to reclaim their lives and make cash. They grew and harvested them, turning into distributors and promoting them on road corners.
And naturally, that rising enterprise was seen as a risk to white residents in cities throughout the South throughout the Jim Crow period. Smithsonian factors out that “many Southern whites reacted to this self-sufficiency by turning the fruit into a symbol of poverty. Watermelon came to symbolize a feast for the ‘unclean, lazy and child-like.’ To shame black watermelon merchants, popular ads and ephemera, including postcards pictured African Americans stealing, fighting over, or sitting in streets eating watermelon.”
Freeman factors out how illogical and nonsensical these pictures had been to her. Most of those pictures, as an illustration, present huge watermelons reduce lengthwise, as if to magnify the options of African Individuals, drawn within the model of the all-too-familiar Black Sambo caricature. However those that eat watermelon typically know that consuming it in small triangles is usually the way in which it’s achieved: To eat it the way in which it’s drawn in these pervasive pictures could be wasteful and extremely messy.
Cultural symbols are extra highly effective than they appear. It’s why this imaging has endured, many years after the Jim Crow period of racism crumbled and constructed itself up into one thing not new, however completely different.
It’s why when school cafeterias serve fried rooster and watermelon and somebody as well-known as Madonna posts a photograph of her adopted African daughters consuming watermelon, it may be damaging.
The Life Journal cowl is a main instance of how one thing can seem like uplifting and affirming, complimentary and optimistic, however as an alternative contributes to the dehumanization of a complete group of individuals. Solely when digging into the historical past, studying about these symbols and unpacking them can they start to lose their energy.